Impact of Social Stress in Addiction to Psychostimulants: What we know from Animal Models

Author(s): Maria A. Aguilar, Maria P. García-Pardo, Sandra Montagud-Romero, José Miñarro, Bruno Ribeiro Do Couto.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 19 , Issue 40 , 2013

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Abstract:

Psychostimulant addiction, most notably cocaine and amphetamine - type stimulants are an important public health problem worldwide. It appears that social factors may influence the initiation, maintenance and recovery from addictions. Several animal models have been developed to study addiction, highlighting drug self-administration (SA) and the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms. These models have been modified to accurately reflect the characteristics of drug addiction in its different stages. One factor that clearly plays a major role in addiction is stress, which is a risk factor not only for the initiation, maintenance and escalation of drug consumption, but also for relapse. In animal models, stress for itself can provoke reinstatement of self-administration or CPP. The relationship between stress and addiction is very tight. One example is the close anatomical relationship of some areas that share these two phenomena. It seems obvious to think that the main source of stress in humans is social interaction. The aim of the present review is to gather the current information regarding the role of social stress in the addiction to psychostimulant drugs in animal models. First, we briefly describe the mechanisms by which stress exerts its effects and the basic concepts of addiction. We will try to establish common pathways of stress and addiction, to address later social stress effects on different stages of addiction. Then, we will address pharmacological therapies and preventive factors that counteract the enhancing effects of social stress in addiction. Finally, we will analyze how negative environmental conditions may induce individuals to increased vulnerability to drugs, and how favorable environmental conditions may have protective and curative effects against addiction. In this sense, we also analyze the importance of social interactions and their ability to modulate the different stages of addiction. As a conclusion, and despite the scarcity of the research, social stress exposure increases the initiation of psychostimulant consumption and the vulnerability to relapse in animal models of addiction. Studies on the mechanisms underlying the effects of social stress and how it can be counteracted pharmacologically, are research areas that should be explored in the future. At the same time, translational research on the effects of environmental conditions and positive social interactions, which have been shown to have a critical role in addictions, should be encouraged.

Keywords: Psychostimulants, addiction, social stress, animal model, reinstatement.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 19
ISSUE: 40
Year: 2013
Page: [7009 - 7025]
Pages: 17
DOI: 10.2174/138161281940131209124708
Price: $58

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