A variety of factors cause infertility, which may arise from treatment of salpingemphraxis, hypophysoma or systemic disease. Many factors affect Female reproductive function, including age, endocrine level, disease, ovarian reserve, environment, endometrial receptivity and so on. The two key factors that affect the female reproductive function is ovarian reserve and endometrial receptivity. In vitro fertilization-embryo transfer has brought benefits to women suffering from infertility. Ultrasound is an significant method to monitor ovarian reserve and endometrial receptivity in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer treatment. We will review the application and development of ultrasound in ovarian reserve and endometrial receptivity in this paper.