Metabolic Syndrome and Non-Cardiac Vascular Diseases: An Update from Human Studies
Niki Katsiki, Vasilios G. Athyros, Asterios Karagiannis and Dimitri P. Mikhailidis
Affiliation: Dept. of Clinical Biochemistry (Vascular Disease Prevention Clinics), Royal Free Hospital campus, University College London Medical School, University College London (UCL), Pond Street London NW3 2QG, UK.
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by a cluster of risk factors including central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia
and insulin resistance, The MetS is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus
(T2DM). Several international organizations have defined MetS using different diagnostic criteria that produced discrepancies in the results
of previous studies, thus leading to the latest Joint Interim Societies (JIS) MetS definition. Other risk factors than the diagnostic criteria
that have been associated with MetS include lipid abnormalities, uric acid, liver function, prothrombotic factors, cytokines, adipokines,
vitamin D, arterial stiffness, polycystic ovary syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea.
Apart from CVD and T2DM, MetS has been related to non-cardiac vascular diseases and in particular to stroke, carotid artery disease,
peripheral artery disease, chronic kidney disease, atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms. In this narrative
review, the associations of these diseases with MetS and its components will be discussed. These associations may further increase CVD
risk in MetS patients, highlighting the importance of treating such high-risk individuals early and “to target”. In this context, multifactorial
treatment including a statin has been proven beneficial, and thus should be considered, in MetS patients.
Keywords: Metabolic syndrome, stroke, carotid artery disease, peripheral artery disease, chronic kidney disease, atherosclerotic renal artery
stenosis, abdominal aortic aneurysm.
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