The prevalence of allergic diseases among infants is increasing particularly in developed countries. Although,
the exact reason is not clear yet, one of the most probable explanations is reducing microbial exposure during early life
and consequent alteration of gut microbiota. Various factors including delivery mode, infant`s diet, environment and
antibiotics administration by mothers are involved in microbial colonization of infant`s intestine. Since the content of
infant`gut microbiota plays a critical role in the maturation and development of the immune system, it determines the risk
of immune diseases. Different studies confirmed the important role of vaginal delivery, due to transferring of useful
bacteria to the neonatal’s intestine, and breastfeeding, owing to the presence of exosomes and different kind of mediators
in the milk which modify the pattern of intestinal microflora. As a result, it was proposed that both factors have
remarkable effects on reducing allergic diseases. Furthermore, the consumption of probiotic productions by the mother
during and after pregnancy possibly induces beneficial impacts on attenuating the allergic diseases.
Keywords: Allergic diseases, breast milk, cesarean, delivery, exosome, probiotic.
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