DNA Methylation and miRNAs Regulation in Hereditary Breast Cancer: Epigenetic Changes, Players in Transcriptional and Post- Transcriptional Regulation in Hereditary Breast Cancer
R. Pinto, S. De Summa, B. Pilato and S. Tommasi
Affiliation: Molecular Genetics IRCCS "Giovanni Paolo II", v.le Orazio Flacco 65, 70124 Bari, Italy.
The genetic alterations associated with breast carcinogenesis are well known. On the contrary
epigenetic alterations in hereditary breast cancer are a new field. Two epigenetic mechanisms have emerged
as the most critical players in transcriptional regulation in breast cancer: the methylation of DNA and microRNA
In this review we will focus on recent findings on gene silencing caused by DNA methylation and microRNA to
explore the potential role of these epigenetic changes in the understanding of hereditary breast cancer.
Moreover we will describe the same alterations in basal-like breast cancer and in triple-negative breast cancer,
since their phenotypes have similarities with BRCA1-mutated tumors. To underline the possibility that some
epigenetic alterations could also be used as potential epigenetic biomarkers of drug sensitivity or resistance,
we will discuss the more common therapies in hereditary breast cancer that could also be applied to breast
cancer with basal-like or triple negative phenotypes.
Keywords: Basal-like breast cancer, BRCA1, hereditary breast cancer, methylation, miRNA, triple-negative breast
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