Nesfatin-1, derived from an 82-amino-acid peptide precursor protein nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2), is a highly conserved peptide
across mammalian species. Initial functional and neuroanatomical studies on NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the central nervous system have supported
a role for NUCB2/nesfatin-1 as a novel satiety molecule. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that this neuropeptide is
involved in various other processes, one of which is the stress response. Stress-associated activation of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons, together
with nesfatin-1’s central actions in the brain, is indicative of its significance in the stress adaptation response. Interestingly, increasing
body of evidence implicates also NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in various forms of stress-associated psychopathologies, such as anxiety
and depression. In this review, we will outline evidence that has significantly broadened our understanding of the biological significance
of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 far beyond to be only a hypothalamic peptide with potent anorexigenic actions. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons in the
brain seem to emerge as novel, integral regulators of the stress adaptation response.
Keywords: Nucleobindin-2, psychopathology, acute stress, chronic stress, energy metabolism, human, rodent.
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