Central and Peripheral Expression and Distribution of NUCB2/nesfatin-1

Author(s): Miriam Goebel-Stengel, Lixin Wang.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 19 , Issue 39 , 2013

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Abstract:

Nesfatin-1 is the N-terminal fragment of nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2). The antibody against nesfatin-1 recognizes both full length of NUCB2 and nesfatin-1, thus the immunolabeling represents NUCB2/nesfatin-1. It has been found that NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is widely distributed in the rodent central nervous system. The immunoreactivity is more intensive in the brain autonomic centers that regulate feeding, neuroendocrine and cardiovascular functions, such as the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, locus coeruleus, dorsal vagal complex and medullary raphe nuclei. In neurons, NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is located in the soma and primary dendrites, not in nerve fibers. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is co-localized with several neurotransmitters involved in regulation of food intake, autonomic and neuroendocrine functions, including oxytocin, vasopressin, neuropeptide Y, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, proopiomelanocortin, -melanocyte-stimulating hormone, melanin-concentrating hormone, leptin, mammalian target of rapamycin, urocortin-1, corticotropin-releasing factor and serotonin. In the periphery, NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is located mainly in the pituitary, gastric mucosa where it coexists with ghrelin, and pancreatic endocrine cells containing insulin. Nesfatin-1 is detectable in the cerebrospinal fluid of rats. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is measurable in the plasma, and altered under different conditions in rodents and humans, such as immune challenge, high fat diet and exercise, anorexia nervosa, anxiety and depression. Anatomical data suggest that nesfatin-1 is a unique neuroendocrine peptide that may be involved in regulation of homeostasis.

Keywords: Central nervous system, homeostasis, hypothalamus, plasma.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 19
ISSUE: 39
Year: 2013
Page: [6935 - 6940]
Pages: 6
DOI: 10.2174/138161281939131127124814
Price: $58

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