Nesfatin-1 is the N-terminal fragment of nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2). The antibody against nesfatin-1 recognizes both full length
of NUCB2 and nesfatin-1, thus the immunolabeling represents NUCB2/nesfatin-1. It has been found that NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is widely
distributed in the rodent central nervous system. The immunoreactivity is more intensive in the brain autonomic centers that regulate
feeding, neuroendocrine and cardiovascular functions, such as the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic
area, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, locus coeruleus, dorsal vagal complex and medullary raphe nuclei. In neurons,
NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is located in the soma and primary dendrites, not in nerve fibers. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is co-localized with several neurotransmitters
involved in regulation of food intake, autonomic and neuroendocrine functions, including oxytocin, vasopressin, neuropeptide
Y, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, proopiomelanocortin, -melanocyte-stimulating hormone, melanin-concentrating
hormone, leptin, mammalian target of rapamycin, urocortin-1, corticotropin-releasing factor and serotonin. In the periphery,
NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is located mainly in the pituitary, gastric mucosa where it coexists with ghrelin, and pancreatic endocrine cells containing
insulin. Nesfatin-1 is detectable in the cerebrospinal fluid of rats. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is measurable in the plasma, and altered under
different conditions in rodents and humans, such as immune challenge, high fat diet and exercise, anorexia nervosa, anxiety and depression.
Anatomical data suggest that nesfatin-1 is a unique neuroendocrine peptide that may be involved in regulation of homeostasis.