Fluids with suspended nanoparticles, commonly known as nanofluids, may be formulated to improve the thermal
performance of industrial heat transfer systems and applications. Nanofluids may show enhanced thermal and electrical
properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity, heat transfer coefficient, dielectric strength, etc. However, stability
problems may arise as nanoparticles usually have the tendency to agglomerate and sediment producing deterioration in the
increment of these properties. In this review, we discuss patents that report advances in the formulation of nanofluids including:
production methods, selection of components (nanoparticles, base fluid and surfactants), their chemical compositions
and morphologies, and characterization techniques. Finally, current and future directions in the development of
nanofluid formulation are discussed.
Keywords: Base fluid, heat transfer coefficient, nanofluid, nanoparticle, nanotechnology and agglomeration, one-step method,
stability, surfactant, thermal conductivity, two-step method, viscosity.
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