Enrofloxacin: Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism in Domestic Animal Species
Cristina López-Cadenas, Matilde Sierra-Vega, Juan J. García-Vieitez, M. José Diez-Liébana, Ana Sahagún-Prieto and Nélida Fernández- Martínez
Affiliation: Division of Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Biomedicine (IBIOMED), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of León, Campus de Vegazana s/n, 24071 León, Spain
Keywords: Absorption, animal species, distribution, enrofloxacin, excretion, metabolism, pharmacokinetics.
Enrofloxacin is a fluorquinolone exclusively developed for use in veterinary medicine (1980). The kinetics of enrofloxacin are
characterized, in general terms, by high bioavailability in most species and rapid absorption after IM, SC or oral administration. However,
several studies reported that enrofloxacin showed low bioavailability after oral administration in ruminants. This drug has a broad
distribution in the organism, excellent tissue penetration and long serum half-life. Also, enrofloxacin is characterized by a low host toxicity,
a broad antibacterial spectrum and high bactericidal activity against major pathogenic bacteria (both Gram-positive and Gramnegative),
and intracellular organisms found in diseased animals. The kinetics vary according to the route of administration, formulation,
animal species, age, body condition, and physiological status, all of which contribute to differences in drug efficacy. The pharmacokinetic
properties of drugs are closely related to their pharmacological efficiency, so it is important to know their behavior in each species
that is used. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in several domestic animal species.
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