Eosinophils play important roles in allergic diseases as well as during helminth infection. As multifunctional
leukocytes, eosinophils have also been indicated in anti-cancer immunity. Published studies have suggested an association
between allergic conditions and a trend of decreased risk in numerous malignances. Moreover, eosinophil infiltration in
tumor tissue is considered an independent prognostic factor. Eosinophils are often recruited to tumor sites, where eosinophil
granule proteins and cytokines are released upon activation, which in turn damage and kill tumor cells. In the last
decade, a number of patents based on potential cancer therapy using eosinophilic cytokines have been awarded. In this article,
we review the current findings on epidemiology, experimental models, clinical pathology, and molecular mechanisms
involved in the response of eosinophils towards cancer. Moreover, we discuss promising targeted therapies with
eosinophilic cytokines as a novel perspective to combat cancer.
Keywords: Allergy, eosinophils, IgE, interleukin-5, tumor-associated tissue eosinophilia, tumor immunology.
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