Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a panvasculopathy that affects the distal pulmonary arteries and leads
to restricted blood flow. This increased afterload leads to adaptive mechanisms of the right ventricle, with eventual failure
once it can no longer compensate. Pulmonary hypertension from associated conditions, most importantly left heart disease,
i.e. heart failure, can also lead to the same sequela. Patients often experience early vague symptoms of dyspnea and
exercise intolerance, and thus PH can elude clinicians until right heart failure symptoms predominate. Evidence-based
treatment options with pulmonary vasodilators are available for those with PAH and should be employed early. It is essential
that patients be accurately categorized by their etiology of PH, as treatment strategies differ, and can potentially be
dangerous if employed in the wrong clinical scenario.
Keywords: Pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary vascular disease, pulmonary venous hypertension,
right ventricular failure.
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