Application of dsRNA in Cancer Immunotherapy: Current Status and Future Trends
Bo Jin, Liu-Fang Cheng, Kai Wu, Xiao-Hong Yu and Anthony E.T. Yeo
Affiliation: Department of Gastroenterology, The 309th Hospital of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army, A17 Heishanhu Rd., Beijing 100091, China.
Keywords: Adjuvant, cancer vaccine, cross-presentation, cytokine, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, dendritic cell, double-stranded RNA,
inflammasome, immune response, immunoediting, immunotherapy, melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5, nucleotide-binding domain
and leucine-rich repeat containing gene family pyrin domain 3, polyadenylic-polyuridylic acid, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, poly
(I:C12U), poly (ICLC), retinoic acid-inducible gene-I, T helper cell, toll-like receptor, tumor, tumor associated antigen.
Cancer cells create a microenvironment that prevents tumor rejection by the host’s immune system. The activation of pattern
recognition receptors (PRRs) can elicit an innate immune response and guide the adaptive immune response to overcome this. dsRNA
analogs can trigger TLR3, RIG-I, MDA5, NLRP3 and several other PRRs to induce not only robust immune response against cancer but
also programmed cell death. This review focuses on the signal pathways activated by dsRNA and examines examples of their clinical
application in cancer treatment.
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