Immunology of Pregnancy 2013

Indexed in: Book Citation Index, Science Edition, EBSCO.

Since a September, 1992, Nature article which read: “Can there be life without LIF?”, researchers now realize that the maternal immune system is both a foe (it can reject the conception) and a ...
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Immuno Endocrine Interactions: An Example; Progestagen Treatment for Threatened and Recurrent Abortion and Molecular Mechanisms

Pp. 614-624 (11)

Julia Szekeres-Bartho, Melinda Halasz, Beata Polgar and Agnes Bogdan


Progesterone supplementation has been used as a treatment for threatened miscarriage to prevent spontaneous pregnancy loss. Although a plethora of key functions and pathways affected by progesterone have been identified, there are still not sufficient diagnostic methods to precisely identify the groups of patients that would benefit from progesterone-treatment. We review the progesterone-induced genes and pathways, which control the process of endometrial receptivity as well as decidualization, and shape the immunological microenvironment at the materno-fetal interface. Recent clinical data suggest a possible beneficial effect of progesterone in the therapy of threatened miscarriage; still, further, larger, randomized controlled trials on the effect of progestogens on the treatment of threatened miscarriage are needed.


Threatened miscarriage, progesterone, Hox10, Ihh, Hand2, TGF beta, PIBF.


Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Medical School, Pécs University, Pécs, Hungary.