Real-time Medical Visualization of Human Head and Neck Anatomy and its Applications for Dental Training and Simulation
Paul Anderson, Paul Chapman, Minhua Ma and Paul Rea
Affiliation: Digital Design Studio, Glasgow School of Art, The Hub, Pacific Quay, Glasgow, G51 1EA, UK.
The Digital Design Studio and NHS Education Scotland have developed ultra-high definition real-time interactive
3D anatomy of the head and neck for dental teaching, training and simulation purposes. In this paper we present an
established workflow using state-of-the-art 3D laser scanning technology and software for design and construction of
medical data and describe the workflow practices and protocols in the head and neck anatomy project. Anatomical data
was acquired through topographical laser scanning of a destructively dissected cadaver. Each stage of model development
was clinically validated to produce a normalised human dataset which was transformed into a real-time environment capable
of large-scale 3D stereoscopic display in medical teaching labs across Scotland, whilst also supporting single users
with laptops and PC. Specific functionality supported within the 3D Head and Neck viewer includes anatomical labelling,
guillotine tools and selection tools to expand specific local regions of anatomy. The software environment allows thorough
and meaningful investigation to take place of all major and minor anatomical structures and systems whilst providing
the user with the means to record sessions and individual scenes for learning and training purposes. The model and
software have also been adapted to permit interactive haptic simulation of the injection of a local anaesthetic.
Keywords: Dental simulation, haptic interaction, head and neck anatomy, laser scanning, medical visualization, real-time
simulation, real-time visualization.
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