Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) Imaging of pH
Zhi-wei Shen, Lv-hao Wang, Zhuo-zhi Dai, Gang Xiao, Yin Wu and Ren-hua Wu
pH is an important physiological index that alters in a host of disorders including inflammation, ischemic stroke and cancer. Therefore, it is necessary to quickly and accurately detect pH in vivo for diagnosing tissue damage and monitoring its response to treatment. Although magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can provide non-invasive measurement of pH, its spatiotemporal resolution is somewhat limited, hindering its routine use in clinic. Recently, chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) contrast mechanism has been developed as a novel approach to image pH at reasonable spatiotemporal resolution with promising in vivo applications. In this review, we discuss the principles of CEST phenomenon, quantify CEST effect and summarize its in vivo use.
Amide proton transfer (APT), chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST), MRI, pH
Department of Medical Imaging 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Medical College of Shantou University Shantou 515041, Guangdong, P. R. China.