Neurochemistry and Neuropharmacology of Essential Tremor
Pp. 110-142 (33)
Hortensia Alonso-Navarro, Félix Javier Jiménez-Jiménez, Elena García- Martín and José A.G. Agúndez
The neurochemical mechanisms for essential tremor are unknown, as there is
no good experimental model for this disease and only a few post-mortem studies have
been reported. Alterations of the dopaminergic, serotonergic, GABAergic,
noradrenergic and adrenergic systems have been described, and are the object of this
revision. The most consistent data are related with the GABAergic, dopaminergic and
adrenergic systems. The pharmacological treatments that have demonstrated greatest
efficacy for essential tremor are the beta-blockers propranolol and primidone. The
efficacy of other drugs, such as antiepileptic drugs, calcium antagonists, amantadine,
clozapine, olanzapine, alprazolam, theophylline, etc., has not been clearly demonstrated.
In some cases resistant to pharmacotherapy, infiltrations with botulinum toxin type A
have been described as effective.
Essential tremor, genetics, family history, linkage studies, genetic
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