Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Anthony Atala  
Wake Forest University School of Medicine,
Medical Center Boulevard
Winston Salem, NC 27157
USA

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Extrinsic Factors Promoting Insulin Producing Cell-Differentiation and Insulin Expression Enhancement-Hope for Diabetics.

Author(s): Shruti Dave.

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered to be an autoimmune disorder leading to destruction of beta-cells resulting in to a loss of blood sugar control. Attempts using many pharmacological compositions including exogenous insulin have failed to show tight control of glycemia and associated manifestations. Stem cells are considered a potential tool for the supply of insulin-producing cells (IPC) generation in vitro. Stem cell differentiation in to pancreatic lineages requires influence of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Application of islet growth factors is considered to be potential for enhancement of beta-cell replication, function and survival. Use of certain extrinsic factors is known to facilitate expression of transcription factors known to be important for beta-cell differentiation and production of insulin enabling IPC generation. Hierarchies of secreted signals and transcription factors have been identified by studies from several laboratories that guide cell differentiation in to IPC. This knowledge provides insights for in vitro IPC differentiation from stem cells. Current advancement in medical knowledge promises an insulin independency for DM patients. The review sheds light on few specific extrinsic factors which facilitate differentiation of stem cells in to IPC in vitro have been discussed; which can be proven as a potential therapeutic option for treatment of DM and associated diseases.

Keywords: Beta-cells, differentiation, extrinsic factors, insulin, insulin producing cells, stem cells.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 8
ISSUE: 6
Year: 2013
Page: [471 - 483]
Pages: 13
DOI: 10.2174/1574888X113089990056