Physeal injuries may lead to the formation of a bone bridge resulting in limb length discrepancies and angular
deformity in children. Current treatment of physeal injuries may be challenging. A number of strategies have been used to
repair physeal defects with varying results. Biological regeneration using stem cells is therefore an attractive potential future
option to repair physeal defects. Preclinical animal studies using stem cells have shown mixed results. Studies have
investigated the use of various scaffolds including chitin, collagen and gelfoam. Significant progress has been made in
discovering appropriate growth factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF-), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1),
bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) that could induce physeal repair and be used
in combination with stem cell therapy. Advances have been made in the use of gene therapy to maintain sustainable delivery
of growth factors to injury sites. This review discusses the current stem cell therapy available to repair physeal injuries.
Keywords: Cartilage, chondrocytes, differentiation, growth plate, physis, scaffolds, stem cells.
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