Dyslipidemia represents one of the major risk factors for atherosclerosis affecting the arteries
of large and medium caliber and consequently causing ischemia in the brain, heart, or legs. Coronary
artery disease and cerebral stroke represent the major causes of morbidity and mortality among
the elderly and middle aged subjects. The change of lifestyle can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease
but available drug therapy (in particular statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme
A reductase) is effective in modifying hyperlipidemia and consequently reducing cardiovascular
events. The hypolipemic drugs can prevent, slow the progression and sometimes determine the regression
of atherosclerotic plaques, therefore significantly reducing the clinical complications of atherosclerotic cardiovascular
disease. In this review, we want to point out the role of the different lipoproteins, such as triglycerides, HDL-C, LDLC,
Lp(a), in the pathogenesis of stroke and the role of statins in reducing both lipid fractions and stroke risk.
Keywords: Cardiovascular risk, dyslipidemias, lipid lowering therapy, lipoproteins, statins, stroke.
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