Several medical conditions sharing similar signs and symptoms may be related to immune adjuvants. These
conditions described as ASIA (Autoimmune/inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants), include a condition characterized
by macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) assessing long-term persistence of vaccine derived-alum adjuvants into
macrophages at sites of previous immunization. Despite increasing data describing clinical manifestations of ASIA have
been reported, biological markers are particularly lacking for their characterization and follow up. We report an extensive
cytokine screening performed in serum from 44 MMF patients compared both to sex and age matched healthy controls
and to patients with various types of inflammatory neuromuscular diseases. Thirty cytokines were quantified using combination
of Luminex® technology and ELISA. There was significant mean increase of serum levels of the monocytechemoattractant
protein 1 (CCL2/MCP-1) in MMF patients compared to healthy subjects. MMF patients showed no elevation
of other cytokines. This contrasted with inflammatory patients in whom CCL2/MCP-1 serum levels were unchanged,
whereas several other inflammatory cytokines were elevated (IL1β, IL5 and CCL3/MIP1α). These results suggest that
CCL2 may represent a biological marker relevant to the pathophysiology of MMF rather than a non specific inflammatory
marker and that it should be checked in the other syndromes constitutive of ASIA.
Keywords: Alum, CCL-2/MCP1, cytokinome, inflammatory cytokine, Macrophagic myofasciitis, vaccine adjuvant.
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