Vaccines are powerful public health tools that have been of tremendous benefit in protecting vulnerable populations
worldwide from many pathogens. However, vaccine- preventable diseases still remain a considerable burden and
this is particularly true among aging and aged populations in industrialized countries. The predicted demographic shift in
the population landscape towards an ever-increasing aging population and the evidence suggesting that older individuals
mount less-than optimal immune response to vaccination have raised the question of improving vaccine responses in older
individuals. This review presents recent progress in the understanding at the cellular and molecular levels of age related
immune decline and strategies to translate current knowledge into the development of immunization strategies to promote
healthy aging, keeping older members of our society autonomous and independent.
Keywords: Healthy aging, immunosenescence, older adults, vaccination, vaccine design, vaccine development, vaccine effectiveness.
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