Neuronal transmission and functional synapses require mitochondria, which are mainly involved in the generation of energy
(ATP and NAD+), regulation of cell signaling and calcium homeostasis. Particularly intriguing is emerging data suggesting the relationship
between mitochondria and neurotrophic factors that can act at the synaptic level promoting neuronal transmission and plasticity. On
the other hand, disturbances in mitochondrial functions might contribute to impaired synaptic transmission and neuronal degeneration in
Alzheimer’s Disease and other chronic and acute neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we review the molecular mediators controling mitochondrial
function and their impact on synaptic dysfunction associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease.
Keywords: Cell death, mitochondria dynamics, apoptosis, ATP production, neurotransmitter release, synaptic function.
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