Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a group of life-long neurodevelopmental disorders, with onset before 3
years of age. They are characterized by qualitative impairmentin social interactions, absent or impaired language and
communication skills, and present with a wide range of stereotyped, repetitive behaviors. Function and outcome are
affected not only by core deficits but by associated behaviors such as hyperactivity, aggression, anxiety, and depression.
Increasing evidence indicates that autism is a complex, multifactorial disorder involving the brain and the body, a result of
genetic vulnerabilities interacting with environmental factors. Although genetics plays a role, the fact, that the incidence
of autism in identical twins is not 100% points to external or environmental factors as contributors.
No etiology - based treatment has yet been developed. During the last two decades many educational, psychosocial and
pharmacological interventions had been utilized and claimed to be effective and even “curative”. The word treatment
should be used with caution, and should stand for interventions that are aimed to help people with ASD to adjust more
effectively to their environment. Many studies have indicated that behavioral therapy and medication may be at least
partially helpful in the treatment of children with ASD particularly on the symptoms of aggression, hyperactivity and
In the light of an approved and well established treatment for ASD, over the past two decades research on the effect of
diet and nutrition on autism has been increasing. Particular attention has focused on the role of food additives, refined
sugar, food allergies, and fatty acid metabolism. However, the results are conflicting and not conclusive. We present here
anupdated review summarizing the potentials and limits of the most frequent nutritional and dietary interventions in the
treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders.