This paper evaluates the current literature on non-pharmacological early interventions (behavior behavioral,
developmental and educational approaches) for pre-schoolers (aged 24-71 months) with autism spectrum disorders.
Although there lies a significant heterogeneity among the available studies, the present review emphasizes the importance
of considering the wide range of interventions through behavioral (behavioral or developmental interventions) and
educational continuum according to the suggestions of the recent literature in this field. Furthermore, the present review: 1)
outlines the issues about the scientific validity of the treatment outcome studies; 2) describes the findings of different
parent-mediated interventions; 3) highlights the importance to use the same outcome measures through the studies to
compare findings of different literature contributions; and 4) focuses on the importance to consider pre-treatment variables to
identify children who will have better outcomes. Furthermore, some evidence-based guidelines about clinical management
and treatment have also been outlined and summarized in this review. Finally, the review concludes on providing a
number of practical recommendations to clinicians working in the field suggesting both the presence of a specialized team
and role of an active collaboration of the family to treatment as core milestones for the clinical management.
Keywords: Autism, early interventions, outcome, rct, toddler, treatment.
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