In recent years, there is a growing interest in research to investigate the importance of gut microbiome in health
and diseases. This opens a new area of research for the role of microbial flora of the human gut in inflammation, energy
homeostasis, pathogenesis of obesity and other associated disorders. Recent studies propose association of the gut
microbiome with development of obesity and metabolic syndromes, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The T2DM
is a metabolic disease that is mainly caused by obesity-linked insulin resistance. The vascular effects of obesity appears to
play a role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that is one of the rapidly growing diseases of a late stage of
life all over the world. Studies from both humans and mice models have been demonstrated the engagement of gut
microbial flora in the pathogenesis of obesity and host metabolism. The aim of this review is to discuss the current
findings that may explain the cascade of gut microbial flora participation in the development of obesity, T2DM and
further initiation of AD. In addition, the available data regarding the mechanisms that have been proposed to elucidate the
role of gut microbiota in weight gain and possible cause of T2DM and AD have been examined.
Keywords: Gut microbiota, obesity, metabolic disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer’s disease.
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