Common Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Alzheimer’s Disease and Type 2 Diabetes: A Knowledge-Driven Approach
Kalamegam Gauthaman, Peter Natesan Pushparaj, Manoharan Rajeshkumar, Kothandaraman Narasimhan, Mohammed Al-Qahtani, Nam Sang Cheung and Jayapal Manikandan
Affiliation: (Jayapal Manikandan) Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR), King Abdulaziz University, PO BOX 80216, Jeddah 21589, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
The relationship between the two age-related diseases namely, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type II diabetes
mellitus (T2DM), is gaining much attention in research because of the alarming forecast on both increasing incidence and
economic burden. Recent research studies have identified some of the existing links, between AD and T2DM, such as the
dysfunctional glucose metabolism and insulin signaling, stress and inflammation, defective protein processing and the role
of advanced glycation end products. It is, therefore, crucial to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms to
identify the common linking mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of both AD and T2DM. Genome wide association
studies may lead to identification of novel targets and provide clues for possible interventional strategies to limit the
progression of these two age-related diseases. Hence, the purpose of the present review is to provide an update, on the
various possible linking cellular and molecular mechanisms, including our experience on the use of high throughput
applications to investigate the molecular mechanisms underneath the neurodegeneration in animal models. Besides, using
this knowledge-driven approach, we discuss how the current technological advancements can effectively be used to
identify possible associations between these age-related diseases.
Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, type II diabetes mellitus, amyloid-β protein, inflammation, advanced glycation end products.
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