Extraction and Purification of Triterpenoids using Supercritical Fluids: From Lab to Exploitation
Marcelo M.R. de Melo, Rui M.A. Domingues, Armando J.D. Silvestre and Carlos M. Silva
Affiliation: CICECO, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, 3810-193, Portugal.
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been a widely studied green technology to obtain triterpenoids (TTs)
enriched extracts from various vegetable matrices.
This review covers research advances regarding the SFE of TTs, with emphasis on biomass sources, operating conditions
and their optimization, and modeling. As in other applications of the supercritical technology, carbon dioxide is the common
solvent adopted, being generally modified with small amounts of cosolvents (e.g. ethanol, methanol) to increase TTs
solubility, as many of these molecules are polar. The operating conditions reported for the SFE of TTs from biomass lie
between 40 and 90°C, 100 and 500 bar, and 0 and 5 wt. % of modifier. An extensive list of relevant works in this field is
also provided, where the most important experimental and/or theoretical information is presented.
Exploitation is also addressed through a compilation of registered patents on TTs extraction and purification, particularly
on strategies to concentrate these compounds after organic solvent or supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. In the whole,
there is a research and intellectual property basis to support further industrial attempts to implement processes combining
SFE and purification technologies for TTs production.
Keywords: Supercritical fluid extraction, triterpenoids, triterpenic acids, purification, patents.
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