A Review of Single White-Light Emitters: The Quest for Picture Perfect Dyes in the Next Generation of Single Layer WOLED Displays
Lili Bao and Michael D. Heagy
Affiliation: New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology, Socorro, NM USA.
Organic fluorophores have at times been criticized for their wide band emission. In the rapidly developing field of white lightemitting
devices (WOLEDs) however, such features have become exalted in the search for dyes that display panchromatic emission. To
achieve white light emission, mixing of emitters that emit red, green and blue (RGB) or complementary color mixing of bluish/green with
orange/red colors represent the most common methods. Among the various design approaches, single white-light emitters feature improved
stability, better reproducibility, and true single-chromophore layer fabrication. The intent of this review is to inform promising researchers
of the fundamental requirements for single-emitter chromophore design and present the latest developments obtained through
different research directions. Thus, molecular systems with the unique capacity to emit white-light are categorized into small organic
molecules, dendrimers, polymeric molecules, and organometallic complexes. These single white-light emitters groups are further classified
as either photoluminescent (in solution or thin films) or electro-luminescent (EL). In addition to providing examples of the authors’
contributions to the field, the review provides a brief outline of the synthetic routes for certain white-light emitters. Where possible, a description
of the photophysical properties is given as well as commentary on the white-light emitter features such as excitation and emission
wavelength maxima within each class of compounds. Therefore, strategies to obtain new white light emitters including thin film requirements,
CIE index values and turn-on voltage for electroluminescent systems are summarized for those seeking to contribute to the
leading emerging technology in display devices.
Keywords: Dual-fluorescence, electroluminescence, photoluminescence, single-emitter, white emission, WOLED.
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