Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease, which is characterized by progressive death of dopaminergic
neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Although mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are
linked to PD pathogenesis, its etiology and pathology remain to be elucidated. Metabolomics investigates metabolite
changes in biofluids, cell lysates, tissues and tumors in order to correlate these metabolomic changes to a disease state.
Thus, the application of metabolomics to investigate PD provides a systematic approach to understand the pathology of
PD, to identify disease biomarkers, and to complement genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics studies. This review
will examine current research into PD mechanisms with a focus on mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Neurotoxin-
based PD animal models and the rationale for metabolomics studies in PD will also be discussed. The review will
also explore the potential of NMR metabolomics to address important issues related to PD treatment and diagnosis.