Surfactant replacement therapy is now the standard of care for infants with respiratory distress syndrome. As
the understanding of surfactant structure and function has evolved, surfactant-associated proteins are now understood to
be essential components of pulmonary surfactant. Their structural and functional diversity detail the complexity of their
contributions to normal pulmonary physiology, and deficiency states result in significant pathology. Engineering synthetic
surfactant protein constructs has been a major research focus for replacement therapies. This review highlights what is
known about surfactant proteins and how this knowledge is pivotal for future advancements in treating respiratory distress
syndrome as well as other pulmonary diseases characterized by surfactant deficiency or inactivation.
Keywords: Deficiency, function, phospholipid, protein, pulmonary, structure, surfactant.
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