Multifaceted Approach to Circadian Rhythm: Redox, Oxidative Stress, Melatonin, Antioxidants, Nitric Oxide, Hypoxia, Anesthetics, Cortisol and Cocaine
Peter Kovacic and Ratnasamy Somanathan
There is a vast literature dealing with various aspects of the circadian clock. This review provides examples of the multifaceted nature, namely redox, oxidative stress, melatonin, antioxidants, nitric oxide, hypoxia, anesthetics, cortisol and cocine. The redox and oxidative stress features reflect the involvement of electron transfer and radical species which can exert either beneficial or deleterious effects. The harmful aspects can be countered by antioxidants. Melatonin is a brain hormone which is known to play a widespread role in the biochemistry of the circadian clock. Nitric oxide is widespread in the human body and plays a variety of roles. Hypoxia has been broadly discussed in relation to circadian rhythm, e.g., in high altitude flight. The anesthetic topic completes the list.
Circadian rhythms, redox states, oxidative stress, melatonin, antioxidants, nitric oxide, hypoxia, cortisol and
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-1030 USA.