Fabry Disease and Cardiovascular Involvement

Author(s): Aris Anastasakis, Efstathios Papatheodorou, Alexandros Klavdios Steriotis.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 19 , Issue 33 , 2013

Abstract:

Fabry disease (FD, OMIM 301500) is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder of the glycosphigolipid metabolism caused by total or partial deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (α-gal A). Progressive intralysosomal accumulation of neutral glycosphingolipids in a variety of cell types triggers a cascade of pathophysiological events including cellular death, compromised energy metabolism, small vessel injury, K(Ca)3.1 channel dysfunction in endothelial cells, oxidative stress, impaired autophagosome maturation, tissue ischemia and, importantly, development of irreversible cardiac and renal tissue fibrosis, leading to major multisystemic manifestations. Cardiovascular complications of the disease are very frequent and contribute substantially to disease-related morbidity and mortality in men. Cardiovascular involvement is the leading cause of premature death in heterozygous female patients with FD. Left ventricular hypertrophy is the most prominent cardiac manifestation followed by conduction system disease, valve dysfunction, arrhythmias, vessel disease and coronary microvascular dysfunction. The diagnosis of subclinical forms of the disease, before the development of cardiac hypertrophy, using newer techniques (tissue doppler imaging, strain rate and cardiac magnetic resonance) is crucial to the early initation of the treatment. Greatest benefit of the enzyme replacement treatment is achieved when started at an early stage of the disease before extensive fibrosis or other irreversible tissue damage takes place. Fabry disease should be included in the differential diagnosis algorithm of idiopathic hypertrophy. Determination of Alpha-Gal A activity on plasma and peripheral leukocytes in males and genetic testing in females are the diagnostic gold-standards.

Keywords: Fabry disease, anderson-fabry disease, fabry, enzyme replacement treatment, left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy, hypertrophy, fibrosis.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 19
ISSUE: 33
Year: 2013
Page: [5997 - 6008]
Pages: 12
DOI: 10.2174/13816128113199990353
Price: $58

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