Hidden low grade inflammation underlines various cardio-metabolic diseases. This type of inflammation is triggered by abnormal
reaction to unwanted self products or deregulation of cellular response to cytokines. In the case of atherosclerosis hidden inflammation
is induced by modified lipoproteins and develops under control of different cytokines including IL-4 and TGFβ. The key innate
immune cells reacting on these factors are monocytes and macrophages. It is well established that monocytes represent a heterogeneous
cell population that easily reacts to pathologic changes in the organism. The best studied marker which expression on monocytes is
changed in inflammatory conditions is CD16. Although this marker was shown to be associated with various pathologic conditions its
specificity is highly questionable. There is an urgent need of identification of new monocyte-expressed biomarkers that may help not only
to detect hidden inflammation but also to determine its type. Our analysis of type 2 activation of human monocytes resulted in identification
of 3 novel biomarkers for hidden type 2 inflammation. These include stabilin-1, FOXQ1 and IL17RB. These markers are expressed
by monocytes/macrophages under stimulation with IL-4 or its combination with TGF β – 2 cytokines playing important role in atherogenesis.
Stabilin-1 was demonstrated on the monocytes in patients with hyperholisterolemia and in macrophages within atherosclerotic
lesions. Association of FoxQ1 and IL17RB with atherosclerosis can be deduced from published data but requires experimental confirmation.
Functions of all three proteins suggest that they are not only diagnostic markers, but also involved in atherogenesis and can be used
as targets for novel therapeutic approaches.
Keywords: Monocyte, biomarkers, atherogenic conditions.
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