There remains a great need for improved imaging technology in oncology both for screening, localization, and to follow the
progress of treatments. With the exception of gadolinium, which has a history of use in MRI, other rare earth elements have been largely
under-used for in vivo imaging. The unique properties of this class of elements are described and the possibilities for their application in
cancer imaging illustrated. Furthermore, recent discoveries show how rare earth elements can provide novel therapeutics in the fight
Keywords: Rare earth elements, cancer, imaging, nanoparticles.
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