During the past 20 years, advances in drug formulations and innovative routes of administration have been made. The understanding of drug transport across tissues has increased. The administration of drugs by transmucosal routes offers the advantage of being relatively painless administration and the potential for greater flexibility in a variety of clinical situations. The transmucosal route includes, oral, nasal, vaginal, urethral plays an important challenging area in the field of novel drug delivery technology. The oral transmucosal delivery, especially buccal and sublingual route has been explored successfully for number of drugs in last couple of decades with novel approaches emerging continuously. The transmucosal membranes are relatively permeable, rich blood flow and hence allowing the rapid uptake of a drug into the systemic circulation and avoiding the first pass metabolism. This route of drug delivery offers number of benefits over other drug delivery approaches like, allows drugs to circumvent some of the body’s natural defense mechanisms, first pass metabolism, harsh stomach environment etc. Several approaches have been used like, drug delivery through nasal route by using sprays, pumps and gels while the mucoadhesive, quick dissolve tablets and solid lozenge formulations are for oral mucosal route. Also, vaginal or urethral routes can be explored using mucoadhesive suppositories, in-situ gel and foam etc. The purpose of this review is to compile the basic approaches studies by different research groups in last few years.
Transmucosal, Bioadhesive polymer, Drug delivery, Mucoadhesion