Development of a vaccine with enhanced efficacy compared to that of the Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG)
vaccine is essential to reduce the global TB burden. This is challenging since an effective vaccine will need to induce
protection that surpasses that induced by natural infection with M. tuberculosis and currently there are no identified
biomarkers of protection. Nonetheless progress has been made over the last 20 years in the development and clinical
evaluation of novel TB vaccines, evidenced by 15 candidate vaccines being tested in phase I clinical trials and 4 reaching
phase IIb and III trials. In order to make further progress there is a need to further understanding of the interactions
between M. tuberculosis and its host and for the development of ongoing partnerships to facilitate the design,
harmonisation and funding of clinical trials.
Keywords: BCG, biomarker, correlates of protection, TB vaccine.
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