Addictions and Stress: Clues for Cocaine Pharmacotherapies

Author(s): R. Picetti, S. D. Schlussman, Y. Zhou, B. Ray, E. Ducat, V. Yuferov, M. J. Kreek.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 19 , Issue 40 , 2013

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Abstract:

Addictions are chronic relapsing brain diseases, with behavioral manifestations. Three main factors contribute to the development of an addiction: environment, including stress, the reinforcing effects of the drug, and genetics. In this review we will discuss the involvement of the dysregulation of the stress responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the acquisition of, and persistence to drug addiction (Section B). Addictions to specific drugs such as cocaine/psychostimulants, alcohol, and mu-opioid receptor agonists (e.g., heroin) have some common direct or downstream effects, including modulation of dopaminergic systems. Through its action on the dopaminergic signaling pathways, cocaine affects the HPA axis, and brain nuclei responsible for movements, and rewarding effects. Several neurobiological systems have been implicated with cocaine addiction, including dopamine, serotonin and glutamate systems, opioid receptor and opioid neuropeptide gene systems, stress-responsive systems including CRF, vasopressin and orexin. The use of animal models (Sections C and D) has been essential for studying the individual vulnerabilities to the effects of drugs of abuse and the neural pathways and neurotransmitters affected by these drugs. Basic clinical research has revealed important relationship between cocaine use, HPA axis responsiveness, and gender (Section E). Finally, we will discuss gene polymorphisms that are associated with drug use (Section F).

Results from animal models and basic clinical research have shown important interactions between the dopaminergic and the opioid systems. Hence, compounds modulating the opioid system may be beneficial in treating cocaine addiction.

Keywords: Cocaine, Stress responsivity, IVSA, HPA axis, CRF, AVP, Dyn, OX, addiction

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Article Details

VOLUME: 19
ISSUE: 40
Year: 2013
Page: [7065 - 7080]
Pages: 16
DOI: 10.2174/13816128113199990610
Price: $58

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