The current treatment regimen against drug susceptible tuberculosis (DS-TB) was defined by the 1980s. Since
then the emergence of the global HIV pandemic and the escalation of drug resistant (DR-) forms of TB have presented
new challenges for therapeutic research. Priority goals include shortening DS-TB treatment, improving DR-TB treatment
and making combined TB-HIV therapy easier. To help achieve these goals, a range of new drugs and treatment strategies
are currently being evaluated. Phase IIb and III clinical trials are ongoing to assess combinations involving the high-dose
rifamycins, the 8-methoxyquinolones, a diarylquinoline (bedaquiline) and the nitroimidazoles. Other compounds (e.g.
novel oxazolidinones and ethylenediamines) are at earlier stages of clinical development. Overall, there are grounds for
optimism that recent advances will contribute towards achievement of new treatment regimens in the foreseeable future.
However, long-term investment, political commitment and scientific endeavour are crucial to ensure that progress is
sustained and the benefits of recent advances reach those in the greatest need.
Keywords: Bedaquiline (TMC-207), Delamanid (OPC-67683), Gatifloxacin, Moxifluxacin, PA-824, Rifampicin, Rifapentine,
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