Xpert MTB/RIF is an automated real-time polymerase chain reaction test for simultaneous detection of
tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance. Xpert MTB/RIF has demonstrated excellent accuracy in clinical evaluation studies,
but has reduced sensitivity for detection of smear-negative tuberculosis. Since sample processing and detection are largely
automated, Xpert MTB/RIF is potentially suitable for implementation in resource-limited settings. There are, however, a
number of practical constraints to the use of Xpert at the point-of-care. Xpert remains a relatively costly test, and clear
demonstration of cost-effectiveness will be needed to support efforts to scale up testing in high burden countries.
Keywords: Cost-effectiveness, detection, diagnosis, rifampicin, tuberculosis, Xpert MTB/RIF.
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