Emerging Research and Therapeutic Strategies for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
Pp. 3-34 (32)
Tomoaki Tanaka and Tatsuya Nakatani
Docetaxel has until recently been the only agent with a small survival benefit for
metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). To improve the clinical outcome in
CRPC, numerous classes of drugs targeting specific pathways involved in hormone action,
bone metabolism, angiogenesis, apoptosis and immune response have recently been
investigated for efficacies either as single agents or in combination with docetaxel. Of note,
some novel agents or vaccines including cabazitaxel, sipuleucel-T and abiraterone have
received US governmental approval to treat patients with CRPC on the evidence of
significant improvement of overall survival in CRPC. From the viewpoint of the complex
mechanisms implicated in prostate cancer progression, effective therapeutic strategies
should be developed by multifaceted approaches, such as the composition of novel agents
targeting key molecules, cytotoxic chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. Recently patented
molecules (e.g., N-cadherin, AR splicing variants, PCGEM-1, ELR-CXC chemokine
antagonist, dual inhibitor of MET and VEGF) have strong potential as therapeutic options
for CRPC. Here, we review the newest evidence of novel agents and patented compounds
and methods for the purpose of future use in CRPC.
AR splicing variant, angiogenesis, apoptosis, Bag1-L, cabazitaxel,
Castration-resistant prostate cancer, caveolin, chroman-derived compounds,
CTL-associated antigen-4, docetaxel, dual inhibitor of MET and VEGF, ELR-CXC
chemokine antagonist, hyaluronic acid, microenvironment, N-cadherin, novel
therapy, patent, PCGEM-1, radium-223-chrolide, target molecule.
Department of Urology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3, Asahimachi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-0051, Japan.