In about 48% hypertensive patients in the United States, blood pressure remains higher than accepted treatment
targets despite broad availability of effective pharmaceutical agents. Of these 48%, recent estimates define about 10-11%
have treatment-resistant hypertension (TR-HTN). Compensatory changes in sympathetic nervous system function are an
important component of HTN. Recent technical advances targeting the sympathetic activity of the carotid sinuses (Baroreflex
Activation Therapy-BAT) and the renal sympathetic nerves (Renal Denervation Therapy-RDT) have renewed interest
in invasive therapy for the treatment of drug-resistant hypertension. Encouraging results from the recent Rheos Pivotal
and Symplicity HTN-2 trials on the safety and efficacy of BAT and RDT respectively, indicate that invasive approaches
can safely reduce blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension. The main goal of this article is to review the
results of preclinical and clinical studies on the electric stimulation of the carotid sinus and the catheter-based renal denervation.
Keywords: Resistant hypertension, baroreflex activation therapy, renal sympathetic denervation.
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