Special Features of Gram-Positive Bacterial Eradication by Photosensitizers
Yeshayahu Nitzan and Marina Nisnevitch
Affiliation: Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel.
Keywords: Gram-positive bacteria, patents, photodynamic inactivation, photosensitizers.
Antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria is a major concern and presents a special challenge for development
of alternative antibacterial modalities. One of these alternative approaches is based on using the photodynamic therapy
(PDT) for eradicating bacteria. Photosensitizer-induced PDT exhibits unique properties and demonstrates efficient
microbe-killing effects. The efficient and irreversible antimicrobial effects of PDT are not dependent on the antibiotic susceptibility
of the pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics. Gram-positive bacteria exhibit efficient binding of the photosensitizer
to the bacterial barriers, leading to immediate photoinactivation of the bacteria. Photoinactivation of Gram-positive bacteria
by various photosensitizers has become a high priority, since these bacteria are responsible for life-threatening infections
in humans, especially in the elderly and in compromised hosts in whom they cause hospital-acquired infections. The
present review concentrates on the photoinactivation of Staphylococi, Streptococci, Propionibacterium acnes, Deinococcus
radiodurans, aerobic spore-forming Bacilli by various photosensitizers and by various methods described in numerous
works and patents.
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