A Critical and Comprehensive Insight on Heme Oxygenase and Related Products Including Carbon Monoxide, Bilirubin, Biliverdin and Ferritin in Type-1 and Type-2 Diabetes

Author(s): Manish Mishra, Joseph Fomusi Ndisang.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 20 , Issue 9 , 2014

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Abstract:

The increased prevalence of diabetes and associated complications presents a major health risk worldwide, and requires an efficient management protocol. Type-1 and type-2 diabetes have several common pathophysiological denominators including hyperglycemia, elevated oxidative stress, increased inflammation and apoptosis. These pathological factors are implicated in the progression and worsening of the disease, and the related cardiometabolic complications associated with it. Despite the advancement in management of type-1 and type-2 diabetes, the high incidence of diabetes and related complications calls for novel therapeutic strategies. Recent findings suggest that the pharmacological modulation of the microsomal heme oxygenase (HO) system may be an important therapeutic avenue to explore. The HO system and related products such as carbon monoxide, bilirubin, biliverdin, biliverdin reductase and ferritin have been shown to abate inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis and reduce hyperglycemia. In addition, the HO system also enhances insulin sensitivity and increase pancreatic beta cell insulin production in experimental models of type-1 and type-2 diabetes. This review is an effort to provide evidence of the regulatory and cytoprotective role of the HO system in type-1 and type-2 diabetes, and will highlight the multifaceted mechanisms implicated in the anti-diabetic effects of the HO system.

Keywords: Inflammation, Insulin resistance, Oxidative stress, Pro-inflammatory cytokines, Activation transcription factors, Adiponectin.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 20
ISSUE: 9
Year: 2014
Page: [1370 - 1391]
Pages: 22
DOI: 10.2174/13816128113199990559
Price: $58

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