There is no sense organ specifically dedicated to time perception, as there is for other senses such as hearing
and vision. However, this subjective sense of time is fundamental to our conception of reality and it creates the temporal
course of events in our lives. Here, we explored neurobiological relations from the clinical perspective, examining timing
ability in patients with different neurological and psychiatric conditions (e.g. Parkinson’s disease, depression, bipolar
disorder, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia). The neural bases of present distortions in time perception and temporal
information processing still remain poorly understood. We reviewed: a) how the brain is capable of encoding time in
different environments and multiple tasks, b) different models of interval timing, c) brain structures and neurotransmitters
associated with time perception, d) the relationship between memory and time perception, e) neural mechanisms
underlying different theories in neural and mental processes, and f) the relationship between different mental diseases and
time perception. Bibliographic research was conducted based on publications over the past thirteen years written in
English in the databases Scielo, Pubmed/MEDLINE, ISI Web of Knowledge. The time perceptions research are executed
to evaluate time perception in mental diseases and can provide evidence for future clinical applications.
Keywords: Anxiety, mood, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, time perception, timing, interval-timing.
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