Characteristics Other than the Diagnostic Criteria Associated with Metabolic Syndrome: An Overview
Niki Katsiki, Vasilios G. Athyros, Asterios Karagiannis and Dimitri P. Mikhailidis
Affiliation: Second Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Hippocration Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece, 44, Tsimiski Street, Thessaloniki, 54623, Greece.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of dyslipidaemia, central obesity, hypertension and/or insulin resistance,
is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) type 2 diabetes risk. Different diagnostic criteria for MetS have
been proposed but in 2009 a joint statement by several scientific societies was released.
Apart from the diagnostic criteria, MetS has also been associated with other risk factors including waist to hip ratio, high
density lipoprotein dysfunction, small dense low density lipoprotein, postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia, lipoprotein (a),
uric acid, liver function tests, prothrombotic factors, cytokines, adipokines, vitamin D, arterial stiffness, renal dysfunction,
nephrolithiasis, polycystic ovary syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea.
We discuss the extensive list of MetS-associated factors that may influence vascular risk. Furthermore, we discuss the impact
of frequently prescribed drugs (e.g. hypolipidaemic agents) on these variables. These effects may need to be taken
into consideration when treating MetS patients.
Keywords: Arterial stiffness, cytokines, diagnostic criteria, lipids, metabolic syndrome, platelets, renal dysfunction, uric acid.
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