MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs, that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene
expression. Recent studies now predict that numerous miRNA molecules regulate a large proportion of the human transcriptome,
thus creating a whole new research field that utilizes their potential impact on gene expression in favor of diagnosis,
prognosis and drug development. MiRNAs are generated from transcription of respective genes into primary
structures that usually follow a two-step maturation process in the cell nucleus and cytoplasm. Active miRNA folds downregulate
protein expression either via direct repression of targeted messenger RNA (mRNA) or mRNA cleavage. They are
critical factors that control human development and organogenesis and reemerge as key-molecules that profoundly influence
adult cells and tissues under stress-responsive conditions. Therefore, several miRNAs exhibit dysregulated functions
in almost all aspects of human pathology such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders, genetic and neurodegenerative
diseases, forming tissue-specific molecular profiles that further define salient pathologic features. The present
article offers an overview on miRNAs biogenesis and functional processes, major aspects of their participation in
human development and milestones regarding their contribution in human diseases. Furthermore, their utility as extracellular
biomarkers and the rationale behind miRNA inhibition or miRNA delivery are being discussed.
Keywords: Biomarker, cancer, cardiovascular, disease, metabolic, microRNA, therapy.
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