Tobacco dependence is the leading cause of preventable death and disability in the United States. While
smoking prevalence among U.S. adults is 19.3%, the prevalence of smoking among methadone-maintained patients
ranges between 73.5% and 94%. Most methadone-maintained smokers (76%-80%) desire to quit smoking; however only
a minority of these smokers receive cessation treatment or referrals for smoking cessation intervention. Smoking cessation
treatment in methadone-maintained patients has generally been successful in reducing the daily number of cigarettes
smoked. Unfortunately, sustained cessation rates using nicotine replacement therapy and behavioral interventions have
generally been low (0%-11%). Poor cessation outcomes may be partially explained by pharmacodynamic interactions
between nicotine and methadone leading to increased reinforcement of smoking behavior. Further research is needed to
improve smoking cessation rates in methadone-maintained patients.
Keywords: Tobacco, cigarette, nicotine, methadone, opioids, substance abuse.
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