Applications of Solid-State Fermentation Process in Biological Detoxification of Industrial Wastes
Chetna Joshi, Sunil K. Khare and Munishwar N. Gupta
Affiliation: Enzyme and Microbial Biochemistry Lab, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 India.
Solid–state fermentation (SSF) has been a useful technique for utilization of large volumes of agro-industrial
biomass in producing value added enzymes and platform chemicals. Herein, the microorganisms are grown on complex
biomass as substrate. They draw the nutrients from biomass and in turn generate the useful metabolites and enzymes. In
recent past SSF has been observed to be a versatile technique for simultaneous detoxification of ‘toxins or antinutrients’
present in the biomass. SSF based detoxification of agro-industrial wastes has been established in case of; phorbol esters
(in jatropha seed cake), ricin (in castor bean cake), caffeine (in coffee husk), gossypol (in cotton seed meal) and glucosinolates
(in rapeseed meal) etc. Furthermore, some notable examples have emerged on xenobiotics and dye degradation
through this approach. Present review looks at these detoxification studies and their mechanistic aspects, potential applications
and further challenges in the area.
Keywords: Agro-industrial waste, biodetoxification, bioremediation, dye degradation, plant toxins, solid-state fermentation,
jatropha seed cake.
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