Solid tumors contain several different types of malignant cells. This cellular heterogeneity complicates therapy
for at least two reasons. First, each subpopulation may respond differently to a given treatment. Second, cancer cells are
plastic, and thus may convert from a therapy-sensitive to a therapy-resistant cell type represented by another subpopulation.
Therefore, successful therapies will have to target numerous malignant cell types, not just the rapidly proliferating
cells as most standard treatments do. Immunotherapies with T cells engineered to recognize cancer cells via bispecific antibodies
(bsAbs) or chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are particularly promising approaches with potential to ablate both
dividing and non/slow-dividing subpopulations of cancer cells. Here, we discuss several patents associated with exceptionally
effective bsAbs of the tandem single-chain variable fragment (taFv) class and untangle a part of the complex network
of patents directly or indirectly related to CARs. Furthermore, we speculate on the future of bsAbs and CARs for
both treatment and prevention of solid tumors such as prostate cancer.
Keywords: Antibody, BiTE, bispecific, cancer, CAR, scFv, taFv.
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