With the development of modern assisted reproductive technology(ART), the treatment of infertility and the
pregnant outcome by ART have been significantly improved. However, implantation failure, particularly the unexplained
repeated implantation failure (RIF), is still the unsolved and principal problem to affect the outcome of ART. The completed
embryo, the receptive uterus and a series of precisely controlled molecular events between the blastocyst and endometrium
are all indispensable for the success of implantation. Thus, deep insight into the molecular mechanisms that
impact the endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation is an effective way to improve the implantation rate. Here the
novel molecular targets and biomarkers have been reviewed that are reported and proved during more recent years in the
aspects of ion channels, aquaporins, long noncoding RNAs and microRNAs, kruppel like factors, metabolism related
molecules and the endogenous retroviruses. Evaluation of implantation markers may help clinicians to predict pregnancy
outcome and detect occult implantation deficiency. Moreover, these novel molecular targets are expected to apply to the
clinical practice from bench to bedside and improve the implantation efficiency in ART and natural conception.
Keywords: Assisted reproductive technology(ART), biomarker, endometrial receptivity, implantation, in vitro fertilization
(IVF), molecular targets.
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